The UPA government recently introduced the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Bill, 2008. The issue of the right to primary education in India, and the way it should be implemented through parliamentary law has been simmering for long, and has attracted commentary on this blog from its inception. Previous posts tracking debates over this issue can be found here, here and here. For a good resource on issues relating to education in general, see this section of the regularly updated website of India Together.
Today’s Indian Express carries an op-ed by MR Madhavan of PRS Legislative Research which seeks to highlight problematic aspects of the Bill. He begins his analysis by noting - as mentioned in the posts referenced above - that the Bill has been delayed since 2005 on the sticky issue of the sharing of costs between the centre and the states, which appears to have now been resolved. Madhavan provides a good summary of the main provisions and aims of the Bill:
The Bill states that all children between the age of six and fourteen years have the right to free and compulsory education. It mandates the government to set up neighbourhood schools within three years. It has provisions to provide out-of-school children to be given special training and then be admitted to the class appropriate for their age. It bans capitation fees and screening tests at the time of admission, failing or expelling any child till the completion of elementary education, and private tuitions by teachers. The Bill has specific provisions for private schools: a certificate of recognition and admitting at least 25 per cent of students belonging to the “weaker section and disadvantaged group in the neighbourhood and provide free and compulsory education till its completion”. For such children, the government will provide reimbursement to the school to the extent of per-child expenditure for government schools.
He goes on to highlight five main points:
First, there appears to be lack of clarity on the delivery mechanism to provide elementary education for all children. … … … [The Bill] permits private schools, [but] places several conditions — on admissions (including the 25 per cent quota for weaker sections), minimum standards and policies on promoting students among others. ... ... ... Second, the focus appears to be on infrastructure and enrolment and not to see that the children who go to school actually learn. ... ... ... Third, the Bill provides for a uniform curriculum and evaluation procedure for elementary education within each state. This would limit the freedom of schools to determining the pedagogical content and methodology. Fourth, this Bill states that “it shall be the duty of every parent to admit his child to a neighbourhood school”. It, however, does not state the consequences of not following this duty. Also, it does not address the issues due to which parents do not admit their children. Fifth, the Bill requires each government and aided school to form a school management committee comprising local elected representatives, parents and teachers. This committee shall monitor the working of the school and the utilisation of grants given to the school. Evidence from Karnataka and several countries in Latin America and Africa on similar committees do not present any conclusive evidence of improvement in quality of schools.
While the Bill attempts to lay down some guideposts, it remains an open question whether its provisions are sufficient to achieve this goal.
There is near unanimous agreement among policy makers on the crucial importance of primary education in India. To echo the point made by Tarunabh in the previous post, it is imperative that Parliament play its role of a genuine deliberative forum, at least on issues that go to the core of our constitutional democracy.
Update: The discussion in the comments section makes a reference to the text of the Bill necessary. Here is the full text of the Bill, from the PRS Legislative Research website.